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Archive for the ‘Health’ Category

Dr. Camille Crittenden introduced the work by her organization CITRIS (http://citris-uc.org/) which is a collaboration between four UC campus in the SF Bay area: Berkeley, Davis, Merced and Santa Cruz, on humanitarian technology innovations and applications, in four core initiatives:

  • Data and Democracy
  • Health care
  • i4Energy
  • Intelligent Infrastructures

IT4D_p20

Under those initiatives, Tech applications have been developed to solve problems in  various areas, e.g.,

  1. Human Rights
    • Crisis mapping, remote sensing, video, forensic analysis, DNA, demographic data collection & analysis
  2. Governance & Democracy
  3. Economic development
    • Microfinance through crowd-sourced loans (http://www.Kiva.org)
    • SMS – popular tool to support agricultural decision-making
  4. Healthcare
    • mHealth: mobile applications for remote diagnostics  and care, use of SMS for medical advice
  5. Infrastructure
  6. Monitoring & evaluation
    • Surveys, remote data collection for feedbacks

Innovative Technologies for participatory assessment, e.g.:

Current challenges include:

  • Poor literacy rates
  • Regional conflicts
  • Climate changes
  • Health emergencies – Ebola, H1N1 etc.
  • Uneven access to the Internet and ICTs across the World

Growing number of communities involving in ICT:

  • Research funded by government and private investors
  • New programs by:
    • USAID
    • UCB Blum center
    • Development Impact Lab
    • Development engineering
  • GHTC and similar conferences

For more information on CITRIS and their projects, please contact the speaker at:

ccrittenden@citris-uc.org

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Co-authors:  Carlos Arteta,  Tingtin Zhu, Marco Pimentel, Mauro Santos, Joao Domingos, Ali Maraci,  Joachim Behar, Julien Oster – University of Oxford

  • Very low Physician-Patient proportion
  • Healthcare Spending  in 2002 < $40 per person/year
  • Healthcare not becoming more accessible today
  • How to get the technology to people?
    • unreliable supply chains & infrastructure
    •  info not portable
    • compliance
    • false alarm ~ 90%
    • human errors ~40% not atypical
  • mHealth solution
    • allow healthcare & non-healthcare expert to look at the info
    • low cost sensors
  • Use of non-expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis
    • For example,
      • Specific characteristics of ECG data can be determined based on crowd-sourced opinion
    • Well-designed algorithm is critical in filtering out noisy opinions

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Co-authors: Laurel Paul, Khanjan Mehta – Penn State University (HESE program)

  • Community Health Workers (CHW) are part of the sustainable solutions
  • Low cost devices are provided to CHW for diabetes detectiion
  • Goal of the project is to find the more effective approach for Knowledge Transfer and Exchange (KTE)
  • General challenges
    • Language barrier
    • Information overload
    • Mistrust
  • Oral communication based in developing world

Technical challenges
1) infrastructure & resource limitations

  • not constant power source all the time
  • no Wifi

2) security

  • not open to have record put on the computer

3) lack of expertise
4) start up cost

  • all monthly wages on a smart phone not feasible

5) equipment reliability and theft

  •  implemented project on the ground in Kenya
  • team of 4 students project: KTE in low resource settings

1) oral script to train locals

– mimics time spent between CHW with a household ~5 min hypertension risk factors basic

– provided paper visuals

2) ask followed up questions to patients after an hour

– Most of them cannot remember about numerical info but other health info

  • Try to see the most effective way to train them
    – need a trust relationship so train the local translator – mimics the CHW not the actual

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Health Papers

Digitization of Health Records in Rural Villages

Difference between scanned and camera phone, between different transcription companies, between options and free text. Accuracy of free text is low. Little to no difference between camera phone and scanner. Focused on evaluating free-form text.

Completely correct / Incomplete, but correct; Mostly correct; Incorrect (2+ errors)

Cost-Benefit analysis. If you want more accuracy, you have to pay more.

Form design suggestions: add additional “notes” area to the right of each field – it’s where it ends up anyway. ^ v + – to represent things. Transcribing forms can be reliable and cheaper than building software.rvaish@cs.ucsc.edu

 

Non-Invasive Microwave Breast Cancer Detection

Why do we need a new modality for breast cancer detection? We have a standard!

Frequent checkups need in-vivo, inexpensive, non-invasive, and convenient methods with acceptable accuracy. Current misses 20%, it’s painful and the radiation adds up. MRI is expensive and not tolerable for some women (with implants). Ultrasound is operator-dependent and high false positive detection rate. All require going to the clinic.

 

Microwave radiation is not ionizing and the heating effect is not harmful at low power levels. Penetration depth is acceptable for breast monitoring. Microwave technology is mature, thus easy to use and cost-effective. Standard component size has ability to create a handheld, portable device.

 

This study’s ultimate goal: portable, self-examination tool. Can notify to go for more in-depth exploration of x-ray or MRI when they exhibit signs.

 

Other work going on is super important, but it’s clinic-based.

Using phantom to differentiate between glands and tumors (they can seem like the same on some images). 1.2GHz was longest antenna that could be fit in (and it’s sufficient).

Conductive cover might degrade detection.  Both magnitude and phase contrasts are considered.

How signatures are analyzed – those above a certain threshold are added up. Adding the cover enhances the signatures in most tumor cases.

Then check against OSHA standard. Totally good!

Arezoo.modiri@utsouthwestern.edu

 

Experimental Results for Novel Microwave Radiator Structure Targeting Non-invasive Breast Cancer Detection

Preliminary prototype was built and tested – design/simulation part of the project was done in Ansoft HFSS and the implementation and test parts were done though collaborations among electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and biology departments inside UTD.

 

Fabrication

HFSS Model, Solid Works Model, 3D printer. Issue of tubes

 

Creating Breast Phantom

Lots of recipes out there! Precise and concise one out of University of North Dakota. Has a real tumor in one! Electrically, muscle acts like water. Using bag of water to mimic the chest wall.

Resonance frequency is slightly shifted from that of simulation. This was ok. Added up the signatures.

 

Math and resonance and frequency! More math and charts! I’m sure this is on her slides..

 

Goal is not localizing – we can do 2D, not 3D with antenna setup – but you can know to go in and have more tests done.

 

Lots of work yet to do – design the complete measurement unit, optimize of the radiation power and exposure duration, wearability

 

Field-Portable Lensfree Holographic Color Microscope for Telemedicine Applications

Our group develops portable, cost-effective, and high-throughput imaging devices.

Lens-based – resolution vs field-of-view, limited depth of focus, size and portability, cost.

Lens-free microscopy, current achievements – can track thousands of sperms ALL AT ONCE.

 

how do we do that?

In-line holography in an unconventional range of parameters. No lenses, quasi-monochromatic, spatially incoherent light sources (LED) with no need for prcise alignment, unite magnification

Advantages and Challenges

Don’t record the object, record its shadow.

 

Pixel super-resolution

Multiple low-resolution images with sub-pixel shifts can be processed to form a single high-resolution image. By optimizing a chosen cost function, the best high-resolution image compatible with all shifted low-resolution images is found.

Multi-height phase-recovery enables imaging of confluent samples. Multi-height phase recovery.

Color imaging in holography. Rainbow color noise! But reconstructs the rest of the object. Solve with computation, across brightness and color components.

 

Z-shift stage, cost $10, 5-10um precision. FOV – 30 mm^2. Sub-micron resolution.

 

Compares super well to lens-based microscope. But theirs is portable! And way cheaper!

Ozcan Research Group

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A New Model for Social Impact
Limit on what philanthropy can do, because it’s not self-sustaining. Sustained initiatives as market-driven. Age of creative capitalism.
• Sponsored and funded by Bill Gates
• Partnered with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
• Managed by Intellectual Ventures, which has more than $6B under management • Driven by impact over profit in developing countries

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Adult Population : Total Wealth 370 million : $184 trillion

1 billion : $32.1 trillion

3.2 billion : $7.3 trillion

 

 

 

Market potential. Distribution, logistics, reliant on things like infrastructure and power which might not exist.

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More than a new product – catalyze the market they’re a part of.

Intellectual Ventures is modeled after Bell Labs. Partner with corporate R&D, shore them up. Developing countries get access to more equipment and brains. IP components to strategy. Have to invest in the IPs which will support those innovations. “What is the meaning of a patent in Africa?” Well, what was the meaning in China 5 years ago? It’s part of the market creation. Patents become an enhancement to the advancement of global health.

Antennas which are a thin film which can be reprogrammed to different frequencies.

Building it in Bellevue is great, but we need to research on what is going on. Most of the data to understand what the needs and the gaps are *doesn’t exist yet.* Or you invent for the fun of it. Need to understand the market forces.

Getting vaccines to where they’re needed most.

Screen Shot 2013-10-22 at 11.17.48 AMMost of the lack of vaccination is a logistics issue. The vaccines exist, but need refrigeration. The last mile problem. 30k vaccine regrigerators needed. 50% + health posts in GAVI countries with marginal or no power mains. When the units fail, the vaccines go with it.

Philanthropy has brought in units, added in infrastructure, monitoring, etc.

Thermos technology. One block of ice and a vacuum chamber. 6 generations, iterations about being dropped and dragged. Now a year’s supply for 5-10 thousand people. Portable! Resistant! Mechanical engineering challenge!

Partnered with Aucma. Largest refrigerator company. Their social responsibility is to get these units out. Their daily production is 10k units – 3 days of production for them to do this. Now also the exclusive supplier of state aid refrigeration in China. Used this as their entrance into Africa. Using it to build a brand around something that is good. They want to sell 10k units a day to African consumers, but first encounters around vaccination campaign. Philanthropy in seeding the ground, sustainability in capitalism.

Challenges!
Need to know all sorts of information: an installed device to track temperature, open count, stock-outs, spoiled vaccines, supply chain inefficiencies. Can infer functionality of device and efficacy of campaign.

Knowing temperature isn’t enough • Power and connectivity

• Stock and asset management • Forecasting
• Emergency response

Modeling Approaches to Understanding Disease • Predict disease spread
• Predict disease evolution
• Assess impacts of interventions

• Optimize interventions
Only possible from capillary data.

More questions and opportunities remain
• What other data collection can be automated?
• What standards are needed for interoperability?
• How can the data find its way to health officials? • How can the data be made actionable?

Collaborative efforts with market experts, customers, regulators, governments, influencers

Our challenge to you: Understand the problems. Consider technology trends. Collaborate. Invent.

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